Authors: Rasha Alkabbanie1 & Sara Serwer2 & Qusay Awwad3 & Mohallab Al- Dawood4
1Mechatronics Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tishk International University, Erbil, Iraq
2Mechatronics Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tishk International University, Erbil, Iraq
3Mechatronics Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tishk International University, Erbil, Iraq
4Mechanical Design Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria
Abstract: 3d printing technologies are rapidly developing, having a strong impact on almost all areas of industry. The very known technology, the fused filament fabrication, mainly uses PLA to produce many objects used in a wide verity of applications. The aim of the study is to study the effect of the printing parameters such as layer height, feed rate, raster angle, and extrusion temperature on the electrical conductivity, the ultimate compression strength, and the water absorption ability of the printed objects. The results prove that the printing parameters have a significant effect on the mechanical and the electrical characteristics as well as the water absorption ability of the PLA printed samples.
Keywords: 3d Printing, PLA, Electrical Conductivity, Ultimate Compression Strength, Water Absorption, Printing Parameters
3DExperience. (2018). 3D Printing – Additive. Retrieved from 3DExperience: https://make.3dexperience.3ds.com/processes/powder-bed-fusion#:~:text=Powder%20Bed%20Fusion%20(PBF)%203D,therefore%20forming%20a%20solid%20part.
Abdulhameed, O., Al-Ahmari, A., Ameen, W., & Mian, S. H. (2019). Additive manufacturing: Challenges, trends, and applications. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 11(2), 1687814018822880.
Al-Maliki, J. Q., & Al-Maliki, A. J. Q. (2015). The processes and technologies of 3D printing. International Journal of Advances in Computer Science and Technology, 4(10), 161-165.
AMFG. (2021). AMFG Autonomous Manufacturing . Retrieved from https://amfg.ai/industrial-applications-of-3d-printing-the-ultimate-guide/
Apium. (2020). Metal Extrusion 3D Printing . Retrieved from Apium : https://apiumtec.com/en/material-extrusion-fff-3d-printing
Gonabadi, H., Yadav, A., & Bull, S. J. (2020). The effect of processing parameters on the mechanical characteristics of PLA produced by a 3D FFF printer. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 111(3), 695-709.
Guo, N., & Leu, M. C. (2013). Additive manufacturing: technology, applications and research needs. Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering, 8(3), 215-243.
Leite, M., Fernandes, J., Deus, A. M., Reis, L., & Vaz, M. F. (2018, May). Study of the influence of 3D printing parameters on the mechanical properties of PLA. In 3rd international conference on progress in additive manufacturing (Pro-AM 2018).
Leite, M., Varanda, A., Ribeiro, A. R., Silva, A., & Vaz, M. F. (2018). Mechanical properties and water absorption of surface modified ABS 3D printed by fused deposition modelling. Rapid Prototyping Journal.
Nadir, A., Mirko, K., Kwon, J. H., & Manja, K. K. (2019). Effect of printing layer thickness on water absorption and mechanical properties of 3D-printed wood/PLA composite materials. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 102(5-8), 2195-2200.
Negi, S., Dhiman, S., & Sharma, R. K. (2013). Basics, applications and future of additive manufacturing technologies: A review. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Research, 5(1/2), 75.
Nikhil. (2020). 3D Printing Processes – Sheet Lamination. Retrieved from Engineers Carage : https://engineersgarage.com/3d-printing-processes-sheet-lamination-part-8-8/
OMNEXUS. (2020). Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and its Features. Retrieved from OMNEXUS: https://omnexus.specialchem.com/selection-guide/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene-abs-plastic
OMNEXUS. (2020). Water Absorption 24 hours. Retrieved from OMNEXUS: https://omnexus.specialchem.com/polymer-properties/properties/water-absorption-24-hours
Ouhsti, M., El Haddadi, B., & Belhouideg, S. (2020). Effect of printing parameters on the mechanical properties of parts fabricated with open-source 3D printers in PLA by fused deposition modeling. Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering, 22(4), 895-908.
Pentek, A., Nyitrai, M., Schiffer, A., Abraham, H., Bene, M., Molnar, E., … & Maroti, P. (2020). The effect of printing parameters on electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of PLA and ABS based carbon composites in additive manufacturing of upper limb prosthetics. Crystals, 10(5), 398.
Robinson, A. (2018). How to Test Electrical Conductivity. Retrieved from SCIENCING: https://sciencing.com/space-science-kits-that-are-out-of-this-world-13763827.html
Sanadhya, S., Vij, N., Chaturvedi, P., Tiwari, S., Arora, B., & Modi, Y. K. (2015). Medical applications of additive manufacturing. Int J of Scientific Progress and Research, 12(01), 11-17.
Shahrubudin, N., Lee, T. C., & Ramlan, R. (2019). An overview on 3D printing technology: Technological, materials, and applications. Procedia Manufacturing, 35, 1286-1296.
Touchstone. (2016). Conductivity Testing – Electrical Properties Testing. Retrieved from Touchstone: https://trl.com/electrical-properties-testing/
TWI. (2020). What Is Directed Energy Deposition (DED)? Retrieved from TWI: https://twi-global.com/technical-knowledge/faqs/directed-energy-deposition
Unlimited, 3. P. (2016). FDM Fused Deposition Modeling. Retrieved from 3D Parts Unlimited: https://3dpartsunlimited.com/blog-post/fdm-fused-deposition-modeling/
Vicente, C., Fernandes, J., Deus, A., Vaz, M., Leite, M., & Reis, L. (2019). Effect of protective coatings on the water absorption and mechanical properties of 3D printed PLA. Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale, 13(48), 748-756.