Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitudes, And Practices Regarding Post COVID 19 Complications (Physical, Biological), And Immunization Practices in Hawler Medical University, KR, Iraq

Authors: Sahar Mohammed Zaki1 & Fatiheea Fatihalla Hassan2 & Omid Saber Abdullah3 & Zainab Ali Jaff4
1Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Hawler Medical University
1Medical Laboratory Sciences, Catholic University in Erbil, Iraq, Kurdistan
2Department of Pharms, Medical Physics, and Clinical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

3College of Administration and Economics, Statistics Department, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq
3University of Kurdistan – Hawler (UKH), Erbil, Iraq
4University of Kurdistan – Hawler (UKH), Erbil, Iraq

Abstract: The purpose of this program evaluation is to assess community knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding complications of COVID 19, and immunization practices after the COVID 19 infection as part of the impact evaluation of the effects of COVID 19 infection.
Cross-sectional a total of HMU employers and students sampled for survey participation. Verbal consent and by website consent to obtained from all study participants. study revealed that COVID 19 infection in female was higher than males. The highest percentage of the patients was in the age group (19-29) which represent about 24.6%, most of the COV ID infection acquired by direct contact 56.5%, the highest percentage of infection was in those individual with blood group A (34.5%), fever was recorded in 85.2%, fatigue (81.1%) and cough (60.7%), 89.30 % of patients complained of fatigue, 56.60 % of patient complained of loss appetite and only 18% developed Acute respiratory distress.

Keywords: COVID-19, Fever, Complications, Survey, Acute Respiratory Distress

Download the PDF Document

Doi: 10.23918/eajse.v9i1p291

Published: February 12, 2023


Alhazzani, W., Møller, M.H., Arabi, Y.M., Loeb, M., Gong, M.N., Fan, E., Oczkowski, S., Levy, M.M., Derde, L., Dzierba, A. and Du, B. (2020). Surviving Sepsis Campaign: guidelines on the management of critically ill adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Intensive care medicine, 46(5), 854-887.

Bwire, G.M. and Paulo, L.S. (2020). Coronavirus disease-2019: is fever an adequate screening for the returning travelers? Tropical medicine and health, 48(1), 1-3.

Chan, J.F.W., Yuan, S., Kok, K.H., To, K.K.W., Chu, H., Yang, J., Xing, F., Liu, J., Yip, C.C.Y., Poon, R.W.S. and Tsoi, H.W. (2020). A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. The lancet, 395(10223), 514-523.

Dai, X. (2020). ABO blood group predisposes to COVID-19 severity and cardiovascular diseases. European journal of preventive cardiology, 27(13), 1436-1437.

Giacomelli, A., Pezzati, L., Conti, F., Bernacchia, D., Siano, M., Oreni, L., Rusconi, S., Gervasoni, C., Ridolfo, A.L., Rizzardini, G. and Antinori, S. (2020). Self-reported olfactory and taste disorders in patients with severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 infection: a cross-sectional study. Clinical infectious diseases, 71(15), 889-890.

Goodman, D., Crocker, M.E., Pervaiz, F., McCollum, E.D., Steenland, K., Simkovich, S.M., Miele, C.H., Hammitt, L.L., Herrera, P., Zar, H.J. and Campbell, H. (2019). Challenges in the diagnosis of paediatric pneumonia in intervention field trials: recommendations from a pneumonia field trial working group. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 7(12), 1068-1083.

Goyal, P., Choi, J.J., Pinheiro, L.C., Schenck, E.J., Chen, R., Jabri, A., Satlin, M.J., Campion Jr, T.R., Nahid, M., Ringel, J.B. and Hoffman, K.L. (2020). Clinical characteristics of Covid-19 in New York city. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(24), 2372-2374.

Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, G., Xu, J., Gu, X. and Cheng, Z. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The lancet, 395(10223), 497-506.

Islam, M.A., Kundu, S., Alam, S.S., Hossan, T., Kamal, M.A. and Hassan, R. (2021). Prevalence and characteristics of fever in adult and paediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis of 17515 patients. PloS one, 16(4), p.e0249788.

Jin, Y., Yang, H., Ji, W., Wu, W., Chen, S., Zhang, W. and Duan, G. (2020). Virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of COVID-19. Viruses, 12(4), 372.

Khan, M., Khan, H., Khan, S. and Nawaz, M. (2020). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases at a screening clinic during the early outbreak period: a single-centre study. Journal of medical microbiology, 69(8), 1114.

Li, J., Wang, X., Chen, J., Cai, Y., Deng, A. and Yang, M. (2020). Association between ABO blood groups and risk of SARS‐CoV‐2 pneumonia. British journal of haematology, 190(1), 24.A

Li, X., Wang, W., Zhao, X., Zai, J., Zhao, Q., Li, Y. and Chaillon, A. (2020). Transmission dynamics and evolutionary history of 2019‐nCoV. Journal of medical virology, 92(5), 501-511.B

Li, Y.K., Peng, S., Li, L.Q., Wang, Q., Ping, W., Zhang, N. and Fu, X.N. (2020). Clinical and transmission characteristics of Covid-19—a retrospective study of 25 cases from a single thoracic surgery department. Current medical science, 40, 295-300.C

Mahal, A., Karan, A. and Engelgau, M. (2010). The economic implications of non-communicable disease for India.
Mao, L., Wang, M., Chen, S., He, Q., Chang, J., Hong, C., Zhou, Y., Wang, D., Li, Y., Jin, H. and Hu, B. (2020).
Neurological manifestations of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective case series study. MedRxiv, 2020-02.

Mo, P., Xing, Y., Xiao, Y.U., Deng, L., Zhao, Q., Wang, H., Xiong, Y., Cheng, Z., Gao, S., Liang, K. and Luo, M. (2021). Clinical Characteristics of Refractory Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. Clinical infectious diseases, 73(11), e4208-e4213.

Monod, M., Blenkinsop, A., Xi, X., Hebert, D., Bershan, S., Tietze, S., Baguelin, M., Bradley, V.C., Chen, Y., Coupland, H. and Filippi, S. (2021). Age groups that sustain resurging COVID-19 epidemics in the United States. Science, 371(6536), eabe8372.

Netland, J., Meyerholz, D.K., Moore, S., Cassell, M. and Perlman, S. (2008). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection causes neuronal death in the absence of encephalitis in mice transgenic for human ACE2.
Journal of virology, 82(15), 7264-7275.Rothe, Schunk, Sothmann, Bretzel, Froeschl, etal. (2020). Transmission of 2019-nCoV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany. New England journal of medicine. 5;382(10):970-1.

Peiris, J.S., Yuen, K.Y., Osterhaus, A.D. and Stöhr, K. (2003). The severe acute respiratory syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine, 349(25), 2431-2441.

Schiffrin, E.L., Flack, J.M., Ito, S., Muntner, P. and Webb, R.C. (2020). Response to “COVID-19 and ACEI/ARB: not associated?”. American Journal of Hypertension, 33(8), 789-790.

Shang, Y., Liu, T., Wei, Y., Li, J., Shao, L., Liu, M., Zhang, Y., Zhao, Z., Xu, H., Peng, Z. and Wang, X. (2020). Scoring systems for predicting mortality for severe patients with COVID-19. EClinicalMedicine, 24, 100426.

Sharma, R., Agarwal, M., Gupta, M., Somendra, S. and Saxena, S.K. (2020). Clinical characteristics and differential clinical diagnosis of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Therapeutics, 55-70.

Song, Y., Liu, P., Shi, X.L., Chu, Y.L., Zhang, J., Xia, J., Gao, X.Z., Qu, T. and Wang, M.Y. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 induced diarrhoea as onset symptom in patient with COVID-19. Gut, 69(6), 1143-1144.

Steele, E.J., Gorczynski, R.M., Rebhan, H., Carnegie, P., Temple, R., Tokoro, G., Kondakov, A., Coulson, S.G., Wickramasinghe, D.T. and Wickramasinghe, N.C. (2020). Implications of haplotype switching for the origin and global spread of COVID-19.

Tanaka, T., Narazaki, M. and Kishimoto, T. (2014). IL-6 in inflammation, immunity, and disease. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology, 6(10), a016295.

Tellier, R., Li, Y., Cowling, B.J. and Tang, J.W. (2019). Recognition of aerosol transmission of infectious agents: a commentary. BMC infectious diseases, 19(1), 1-9.

Temmel, A.F., Quint, C., Schickinger-Fischer, B., Klimek, L., Stoller, E. and Hummel, T. (2002). Characteristics of olfactory disorders in relation to major causes of olfactory loss. Archives of Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery, 128(6), 635-641.

Tharakan, S., Nomoto, K., Miyashita, S. and Ishikawa, K. (2020). Body temperature correlates with mortality in COVID-19 patients. Critical care, 24, 1-3.Thwaites, Day. (2017). Approach to fever in the returning traveler. New England Journal of Medicine. 9;376(6):548-60.

Thwaites, G.E. and Day, N.P. (2017). Approach to fever in the returning traveler. New England Journal of Medicine, 376(6), 548-560.

Wölfel, R., Corman, V.M., Guggemos, W., Seilmaier, M., Zange, S., Müller, M.A., Niemeyer, D., Jones, T.C., Vollmar, P., Rothe, C. and Hoelscher, M. (2020). Virological assessment of hospitalized patients with COVID-2019. Nature, 581(7809),465-4699.

World Health Organization (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): situation report, 72.

World Health Organization (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): situation report, 73.

Wu, C., Chen, X., Cai, Y., Zhou, X., Xu, S., Huang, H., Zhang, L., Zhou, X., Du, C., Zhang, Y. and Song, J. (2020). Risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA internal medicine, 180(7), 934-943. A.

Wu, P., Duan, F., Luo, C., Liu, Q., Qu, X., Liang, L. and Wu, K. (2020). Characteristics of ocular findings of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei Province, China. JAMA ophthalmology, 138(5), 575-578.B

Wu, Y., Feng, Z., Li, P. and Yu, Q. (2020). Relationship between ABO blood group distribution and clinical characteristics in patients with COVID-19. Clinica chimica acta, 509, 220-223.C

Young, V.L. and Watson, M.E. (2006). Prevention of perioperative hypothermia in plastic surgery. Aesthetic Surgery Journal, 26(5), 551-571.

Zhang, Garner, Salehi, La Rocca, Duncan. (2021). Association between ABO blood types and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), genetic associations, and underlying molecular mechanisms: a literature review of 23 studies. Annals of Hematology. 8:1-0.

Zhang, Y., Geng, X., Tan, Y., Li, Q., Xu, C., Xu, J., Hao, L., Zeng, Z., Luo, X., Liu, F. and Wang, H. (2020). New understanding of the damage of SARS-CoV-2 infection outside the respiratory system. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy, 127, 110195.A

Zhou, F., Yu, T., Du, R., Fan, G., Liu, Y., Liu, Z., Xiang, J., Wang, Y., Song, B., Gu, X. and Guan, L. (2020). Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. The lancet, 395(10229), 1054-1062.

Zhu, N., Zhang, D., Wang, W., Li, X., Yang, B., Song, J., Zhao, X., Huang, B., Shi, W., Lu, R. and Niu, P. (2020). A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. New England journal of medicine.