Synergetic Interactions of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) and Anaerobic Bacteria in Groundwater Remediation: A Review

Authors: Muayad Shawkat Sheikh1 & Kamal Kolo2 & Samir Mustafa Hamad3
1Department of Biogeosciences, Scientific Research Center (SRC), Soran University, Soran Erbil, Iraq
1Directorate of Water, Soran, Erbil, Iraq
2Soran Scientific Research Center (SRC), Soran University, Soran, Erbil, Iraq
3Nanotechnology Department, Scientific Research Centre, Soran University, Erbil, Iraq
3Computer Department, Cihan University-Erbil, Erbil, Iraq

Abstract: During the last century, large scale production of halogenated organic compounds and heavy metals, specifically by industrial processes, and the inappropriate management of those products caused a wide spreading of a variety of hazardous contaminants into the environment including a massive contamination of the groundwater. Their presence and persistence have significantly influenced human health and the environment. Recently, many technologies have been employed in order to reduce their impacts. However, the majority of those technologies did not achieve the target, because of their high cost and low efficacy in the reduction of contaminants. Nevertheless, a new technology of synergetic interactions of (nZVI) zero-valent iron nanoparticles with two types of anaerobic bacteria; the organohalide respiring bacteria (OHRB) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), have been investigated as a promising technology for in-situ groundwater remediation. This powerful technique was successfully utilized for the reduction of pollutants and converted to environmentally benign forms. This article reviews and emphasizes the coupling effect of (nZVI-OHRB) and (nZVI-SRB) on the remediation process of contaminated sites, in addition to a detailed illustration of the mechanism of the integration of (nZVI-OHRB) and (nZVI-SRBs), and discussion of the influencing factors on the integrated system. Actually, the technology presented here, though proven successfully, needs more case studies to better understanding of the interactions between microorganisms and nZVI, as well as with the surrounding environment for a better efficacy and finding the best solutions.

Keywords: Chlorinated (Halogenated) Solvents, Groundwater Remediation, Heavy Metals, Microbial Reductive Dehalogenation, Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron (nZVI), Organohalide Respiring Bacteria (OHRB), Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB)

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Doi: 10.23918/easje.v8i2p35

Published: September 6, 2022

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