Fear, Knowledge, and Modification of Practice among Iraqi Dentists to Fight Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic

Authors: Mokhtar Al- Hamidi1 & Dina Isam Afram Jarjur2 & Bushra Rashid Noaman3 & Duran Kala4
1Dentistry Faculty, Tishk International University, Erbil, Iraq
2Dentistry Faculty, Tishk International University, Erbil, Iraq
3Dentistry Faculty, Tishk International University, Erbil, Iraq
4Dentistry Faculty, Tishk International University, Erbil, Iraq

Abstract: Health care workers, especially doctors and nurses who are in direct contact with COVID-19 patients are on high-risk professions despite wearing full protective equipment. This study aimed to assess the fear and emotional stress among Iraqi dentists from getting infected with COVID-19 and also their knowledge in preventing this disease. A cross-sectional study using an online survey questionnaire consisted of 22 questions was implemented using Google Forms. The study started after gaining the agreement of the authority. The questionnaire was put out on social media; well known Iraqi dentist’s Facebook groups, and through e-mail. The study covered all the governorates of Iraq. The data were processed using SPSS. The sample was 516 dentists (216 males, and 255 females) and 218 participants were graduates, 249 postgraduates, and 49 of them were students. Results showed that, dentists who were afraid of getting infected with COVID-19 were 82%. Iraqi dentists have knowledge about the Novel COVID19 and are afraid of getting infected. Iraqi dentists need modifications in their practice to protect themselves and their patients from this pandemic.

Keywords: COVID-19, Dentists, Fear, Anxiety, Knowledge

Download the PDF Document

doi: 10.23918/eajse.v7i1p274


Abdi, R., Shojaeian, R., Hajian, S., & Sheikh, S. (2020). Surgical Practice in the Shadow of COVID-19 Outbreak. The Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery, 8(Covid-19 Special Issue), 256-261.

Ahmed, M.A., Jouhar, R., Ahmed, N., Adnan, S., Aftab, M., Zafar, M.S., & Khurshid, Z. (2020). Fear and practice modifications among dentists to combat Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) outbreak. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(8), 2821.

Alharbi, A., Alharbi, S., & Alqaidi, S. (2020). Guidelines for dental care provision during the COVID- 19 pandemic. The Saudi Dental Journal, 32(4),181-186.

Ather, A., Patel, B., Ruparel, N.B., Diogenes, A., & Hargreaves, K.M. (2020). Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19): Implications for clinical dental care. Journal of Endodontics, 46(5), 584-595.

Bogoch, I.I., Watts, A., Thomas-Bachli, A., Huber, C., Kraemer, M.U., & Khan, K. (2020). Pneumonia of unknown aetiology in Wuhan, China: Potential for international spread via commercial air travel. Journal of Travel Medicine, 27(2), p. taaa008.

Briefs, V. I. F., & Books, V. I. F. (n.d.). COVID-19: Developments in West Asia. Retrieved on 16 June, 2020 from https://emro.who.int/irq/iraq-news/who-technical-mission-visits-iraq-for-covid-19-response.html

Burton, W.E., & Miller, R.L. (1963). The role of aerobiology in dentistry. In First International Symposium on Aerobiolo-gy. Naval Biology Laboratory, Naval Supply Center, University of California, Berkeley (pp. 87-94).

Consolo, U., Bellini, P., Bencivenni, D., Iani, C., & Checchi, V. (2020). Epidemiological aspects and psychological reactions to COVID-19 of dental practitioners in the Northern Italy districts of Modena and Reggio Emilia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(10), 3459.

Devakumar, D., Shannon, G., Bhopal, S.S., & Abubakar, I. (2020). Racism and discrimination in COVID-19 responses. The Lancet, 395(10231), 1194.

El-Hage, W., Hingray, C., Lemogne, C. (2020). Les professionals de santé face à la pandémie de la maladie à coronavirus (COVID-19): Quels risques pour leur santé mentale ? [Health professionals facing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: What are the mental health risks?]. Encephale. 46(3S):S73. DOI:10.1016/j.encep.2020.04.008.

Gorbalenya, A.E., Baker, S.C., Baric, R., Groot, R.J.D., Drosten, C., Gulyaeva, A.A., Haagmans, B.L., Lauber, C., Leontovich, A.M., Neuman, B.W., & Penzar, D. (2020). Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: The species and its viruses–a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group. DOI: 10.1038/s41564-020-0695-z

Haleem, A., Javaid, M., & Vaishya, R. (2020). Effects of COVID 19 pandemic in daily life. Curr Med Res Pract, 10(2), 78. Advance online publication. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmrp.2020.03.011

Hamm, A.O. (2020). Fear, anxiety, and their disorders from the perspective of psychophysiology. Psychophysiology, 57(2), p.e13474.

HCP, CDC (n.d.). Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Patients with Suspected or Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Healthcare Settings. Retrieved on June 16, 2020 from from https://cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/infection-control-recommendations.html
Iraqi Ministry of health. Retrieved on June 16, 2020 from https://moh.gov.iq/

Izzetti, R., Nisi, M., Gabriele, M., Graziani, F. (2020). COVID-19 transmission in dental practice: Brief review of preventive measures in Italy. Journal of Dental Research, p.0022034520920580.

Kasmi, Y., Khataby, K., Souiri, A., & Ennaji, M.M. (2020). Coronaviridae: 100,000 years of emergence and reemergence. In Emerging and reemerging viral pathogens (pp. 127-149). Academic Press.

Maunder, R. (2004). The experience of the 2003 SARS outbreak as a traumatic stress among frontline healthcare workers in Toronto: Lessons learned. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 359(1447), 1117-1125.

Micik, R.E., Miller, R.L., Mazzarella, M.A., & Ryge, G. (1969). Studies on dental aerobiology: I. Bacterial aerosols generated during dental procedures. Journal of Dental Research, 48(1), 49-56.

Millar, R.C. (2020). Nursing a patient with Covid-19 infection. Tasman Medical Journal, 1(1).

Mulder, R., Layloo, N., & van Staden, S.M. (2020). COVID-19: Focus on masks. SADJ, 75(4), 175-182.

Nickell, L.A., Crighton, E.J., Tracy, C.S., Al-Enazy, H., Bolaji, Y., Hanjrah, S., Hussain, A., Makhlouf, S., & Upshur, R.E. (2004).
Psychosocial effects of SARS on hospital staff: Survey of a large tertiary care institution. Cmaj, 170(5), 793-798.

Qiu, J., Shen, B., Zhao, M., Wang, Z., Xie, B., & Xu, Y. (2020). A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: Implications and policy recommendations. General Psychiatry, 33(2).

Onder, G., Rezza, G., & Brusaferro, S. (2020). Case-fatality rate and characteristics of patients dying in relation to COVID-19 in Italy. Jama, 323(18), 1775-1776.

Ornell, F., Schuch, J.B., Sordi, A.O., & Kessler, F.H.P. (2020). “Pandemic fear” and COVID-19: Mental health burden and strategies. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, 42(3), 232-235.

Roy, D., Tripathy, S., Kar, S.K., Sharma, N., Verma, S.K., & Kaushal, V. (2020). Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pandemic. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 102083.

Sohrabi, C., Alsafi, Z., O’Neill, N., Khan, M., Kerwan, A., Al-Jabir, A., Iosifidis, C., & Agha, R. (2020). World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). International Journal of Surgery, 76, 71-76.

Urooj, U., Ansari, A., Siraj, A., Khan, S., & Tariq, H. (2020). Expectations, Fears and Perceptions of doctors during Covid-19 Pandemic. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 36(COVID19-S4). DOI: 10.12669/pjms.36.COVID19-S4.2643
World Health Organization (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Situation report, 72.

Yang, J., Zheng, Y., Gou, X., Pu, K., Chen, Z., Guo, Q., Ji, R., Wang, H., Wang, Y., & Zhou, Y. (2020). Prevalence of comorbidities in the novel Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 94, 91-95.