Availability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Environment and Food Chains: A Review

Authors: Seerat Ul Ain Bhutto1 & Sanjrani Manzoor A.2 & Mutaharat Ul Ain Bhutto3 & Ahmed M Abodif4
1School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, China
2School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai, China
3Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Jamshoro 76080, Pakistan
4School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Wuhan University of Technology, China

Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to their detrimental threat to human life, widespread existence in food chains and incremental lifetime cancer risk are of great concern around the globe. Ensuing their carcinogenic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects, this paper reviews the status of PAHs pollution in air, sediment, soil and water of different world regions and food chains. Besides this, the review will also summarize the data available on the content of PAHs in various food types and effects of PAHs intake on human health along with some preventive measures. The result showed that the overall concentration of PAHs ranged from 0- 3842 ng.m-3 in air, 0- 205398.76 ng. L-1 in water and 0-233320 ng. g-1 in sediment while agriculture soil possesses lower concentration of PAHs than urban soil. Moreover, higher content of PAHs in air, water and sediment have found in Asia, Middle East, and Africa, respectively. At the end, discussion will be extended to describe some recommendations to reduce emission rate of PAHs around the world.

Keywords: PAHs, Ecotoxicology, Carcinogenic, Mutagenic, Genotoxic, Regional Distribution

Download the PDF Document

doi: 10.23918/eajse.v6i2p83


Abdel-Shafy, H. I., & Mansour, M. S. M. (2016). A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, 25(1), 107–123.

Adeniji, A. O., Okoh, O. O., & Okoh, A. I. (2018). Analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their global trend of distribution in water and sediment: a review. Recent Insights in Petroleum Science and Engineering, 10.

Afolabi, O. A., Adesulu, E. A., & Oke, O. L. (1983). Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in some Nigerian preserved freshwater fish species. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 31(5), 1083–1090.

Agarwal, T., Khillare, P. S., Shridhar, V., & Ray, S. (2009). Pattern, sources and toxic potential of PAHs in the agricultural soils of Delhi, India. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 163(2–3), 1033–1039.

Al-Haddad, A., Madany, I. M., & Abdullah, F. J. (1993). Levels of PCBs and PAHs in Bahrain soil. Environment International, 19(3), 277–284.

Al-Rashdan, A., Helaleh, M. I. H., Nisar, A., Ibtisam, A., & Al-Ballam, Z. (2010). Determination of the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in toasted bread using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. International Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 2010.

Alawi, M. A., & Azeez, A. L. (2016). Study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil samples from Al-Ahdab oil field in Waset Region, Iraq. Toxin Reviews, 35(3–4), 69–76.

Albuquerque, M., Coutinho, M., & Borrego, C. (2016). Long-term monitoring and seasonal analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) measured over a decade in the ambient air of Porto, Portugal. Science of the Total Environment, 543, 439–448.

Alomirah, H., Al-Zenki, S., Al-Hooti, S., Zaghloul, S., Sawaya, W., Ahmed, N., & Kannan, K. (2011). Concentrations and dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from grilled and smoked foods. Food Control, 22(12), 2028–2035.

Alves, C. A., Vicente, A. M. P., Gomes, J., Nunes, T., Duarte, M., & Bandowe, B. A. M. (2016). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives (oxygenated-PAHs, nitrated-PAHs and azaarenes) in size-fractionated particles emitted in an urban road tunnel. Atmospheric Research, 180, 128–137.

Amato-Lourenco, L. F., Saiki, M., Saldiva, P. H. N., & Mauad, T. (2017). Influence of air pollution and soil contamination on the contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Pahs) in vegetables grown in urban gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 5, 77.

Arhami, M., Minguillón, M. C., Polidori, A., Schauer, J. J., Delfino, R. J., & Sioutas, C. (2010). Organic compound characterization and source apportionment of indoor and outdoor quasi‐ultrafine particulate matter in retirement homes of the Los Angeles Basin. Indoor Air, 20(1), 17–30.

Ashraf, M. A., Sarfraz, M., Naureen, R., & Gharibreza, M. (2015). Environmental impacts of metallic elements: speciation, bioavailability and remediation. Springer.

Ashraf, M. W., Taqvi, S. I. H., Solangi, A. R., & Qureshi, U. A. (2013). Distribution and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetables grown in pakistan. Journal of Chemistry, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/873959

Bach, P. B., Kelley, M. J., Tate, R. C., & McCrory, D. C. (2003). Screening for lung cancer: a review of the current literature. Chest, 123(1), 72S–82S.

Bandowe, B. A. M., Bigalke, M., Kobza, J., & Wilcke, W. (2018). Sources and fate of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs, oxygenated PAHs and azaarenes) in forest soil profiles opposite of an aluminium plant. Science of the Total Environment, 630, 83–95.

Bandowe, B. A. M., Leimer, S., Meusel, H., Velescu, A., Dassen, S., Eisenhauer, N., … Wilcke, W. (2019). Plant diversity enhances the natural attenuation of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs and oxygenated PAHs) in grassland soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 129, 60–70.

Bansal, V., & Kim, K.-H. (2015). Review of PAH contamination in food products and their health hazards. Environment International, 84, 26–38.

Birgul, A., & Tasdemir, Y. (2015). Concentrations, gas-particle partitioning, and seasonal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at four sites in Turkey. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 68(1), 46–63.

Bojakowska, I., Tomassi-Morawiec, H., & Markowski, W. (2018). PAHs and DDTs in soil and sediment of inland water bodies of Warsaw city and its surroundings. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 187, 57–71.

Bølling, A. K., Pagels, J., Yttri, K. E., Barregard, L., Sallsten, G., Schwarze, P. E., & Boman, C. (2009). Health effects of residential wood smoke particles: the importance of combustion conditions and physicochemical particle properties. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 6(1), 29.

Borosky, G. L. (1999). Theoretical study related to the carcinogenic activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives. The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 64(21), 7738–7744.

Bozlaker, A., Muezzinoglu, A., & Odabasi, M. (2008). Atmospheric concentrations, dry deposition and air–soil exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an industrial region in Turkey. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 153(3), 1093–1102.

Buckley, T. J., & Lioy, P. J. (1992). An examination of the time course from human dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to urinary elimination of 1-hydroxypyrene. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 49(2), 113–124.

Burstyn, I., Kromhout, H., Partanen, T., Svane, O., Langård, S., Ahrens, W., … Heederik, D. (2005). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fatal ischemic heart disease. Epidemiology, 744–750.

Cancer, I. A. for R. on. (1983). Polynuclear aromatic compounds, part 1, chemical, environmental, and experimental data. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man, IARC Scientific Publications, 32, 33–451.

Cao, H., Chao, S., Qiao, L., Jiang, Y., Zeng, X., & Fan, X. (2017). Urbanization-related changes in soil PAHs and potential health risks of emission sources in a township in Southern Jiangsu, China. Science of the Total Environment, 575, 692–700.

Carrero, J. A., Arrizabalaga, I., Bustamante, J., Goienaga, N., Arana, G., & Madariaga, J. M. (2013). Diagnosing the traffic impact on roadside soils through a multianalytical data analysis of the concentration profiles of traffic-related elements. Science of the Total Environment, 458, 427–434.

Chakraborty, P., Ramteke, D., & Chakraborty, S. (2015). Geochemical partitioning of Cu and Ni in mangrove sediments: relationships with their bioavailability. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 93(1–2), 194–201.

Chang, K.-F., Fang, G.-C., Chen, J.-C., & Wu, Y.-S. (2006). Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Asia: a review from 1999 to 2004. Environmental Pollution, 142(3), 388–396.

Chen, Y., Zhang, J., Zhang, F., Liu, X., & Zhou, M. (2018). Contamination and health risk assessment of PAHs in farmland soils of the Yinma River Basin, China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 156, 383–390.

Cheruiyot, N. K., Lee, W.-J., Mwangi, J. K., Wang, L.-C., Lin, N.-H., Lin, Y.-C., … Chang-Chien, G.-P. (2015). An overview: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from the stationary and mobile sources and in the ambient air. Aerosol Air Qual. Res, 15, 2730–2762.

Christensen, E. R., & Bzdusek, P. A. (2005). PAHs in sediments of the Black River and the Ashtabula River, Ohio: source apportionment by factor analysis. Water Research, 39(4), 511–524.

Collins, J. F., Brown, J. P., Alexeeff, G. V, & Salmon, A. G. (1998). Potency equivalency factors for some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 28(1), 45–54.

Dat, N.-D., & Chang, M. B. (2017). Review on characteristics of PAHs in atmosphere, anthropogenic sources and control technologies. Science of the Total Environment, 609, 682–693.

Davıdek, J. (1995). Natural Toxic Compounds of Foods. Formation and Change during Processing and Storage. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.

Demircioglu, E., Sofuoglu, A., & Odabasi, M. (2011). Particle-phase dry deposition and air–soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Izmir, Turkey. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 186(1), 328–335.

Ding, Y., Huang, H., Zhang, Y., Zheng, H., Zeng, F., Chen, W., … Qi, S. (2018). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in agricultural soils from Northwest Fujian, Southeast China: Spatial distribution, source apportionment, and toxicity evaluation. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 195, 121–129.

Dost, K., & İdeli, C. (2012). Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oils and barbecued food by HPLC/UV–Vis detection. Food Chemistry, 133, 193–199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.01.001

Dudhagara, D. R., Rajpara, R. K., Bhatt, J. K., Gosai, H. B., Sachaniya, B. K., & Dave, B. P. (2016). Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of PAHs in historically contaminated surface sediments at Bhavnagar coast, Gujarat, India. Environmental Pollution, 213, 338–346.

Duodu, G. O., Ogogo, K. N., Mummullage, S., Harden, F., Goonetilleke, A., & Ayoko, G. A. (2017). Source apportionment and risk assessment of PAHs in Brisbane River sediment, Australia. Ecological Indicators, 73, 784–799.

Edwards, N. T. (1983). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH’s) in the Terrestrial Environment—A Review 1. Journal of Environmental Quality, 12(4), 427–441.

Eggleton, J., & Thomas, K. V. (2004). A review of factors affecting the release and bioavailability of contaminants during sediment disturbance events. Environment International, 30(7), 973–980.

Eisler, R. (1987). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Hazards to Fish, Wildlife and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review. In Contaminant Hazard Reviews. Retrieved from https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5200072

EL-Saeid, M. H., & Sapp, J. B. (2016). Distribution ratios of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban soils. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, 1–10.

Elorduy, I., Elcoroaristizabal, S., Durana, N., García, J. A., & Alonso, L. (2016). Diurnal variation of particle-bound PAHs in an urban area of Spain using TD-GC/MS: influence of meteorological parameters and emission sources. Atmospheric Environment, 138, 87–98.

Falay, E. O., Tuna, G., Altiok, H., Kara, M., Dumanoglu, Y., Bayram, A., … Odabasi, M. (2013). Spatial variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air, soil and tree components in Iskenderun industrial region, Turkey. Int J Chem Environ Biol Sci, 1(2).

Falcó, G., Bocio, A., Llobet, J. M., & Domingo, J. L. (2005). Health risks of dietary intake of environmental pollutants by elite sportsmen and sportswomen. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 43(12), 1713–1721.

Franco, C. F. J., de Resende, M. F., de Almeida Furtado, L., Brasil, T. F., Eberlin, M. N., & Netto, A. D. P. (2017). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust of Rio de Janeiro and Niterói, Brazil: particle size distribution, sources and cancer risk assessment. Science of the Total Environment, 599, 305–313.

Fretheim, K. (1983). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in grilled meat products—a review. Food Chemistry, 10(2), 129–139.

Gao, P., Xu, M., Liu, Y., da Silva, E. B., Xiang, P., & Ma, L. Q. (2019). Emerging and legacy PAHs in urban soils of four small cities: Concentrations, distribution, and sources. Science of the Total Environment, 685, 463–470.

Garrido, A., Jiménez-Guerrero, P., & Ratola, N. (2014). Levels, trends and health concerns of atmospheric PAHs in Europe. Atmospheric Environment, 99, 474–484.

Grant, W. B. (2009). Air pollution in relation to US cancer mortality rates: an ecological study; likely role of carbonaceous aerosols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Anticancer Research, 29(9), 3537–3545.

Gregoris, E., Argiriadis, E., Vecchiato, M., Zambon, S., De Pieri, S., Donateo, A., … Gambaro, A. (2014). Gas-particle distributions, sources and health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in Venice aerosols. Science of the Total Environment, 476, 393–405.

Grimmer, G., Brune, H., Dettbarn, G., Naujack, K.-W., Mohr, U., & Wenzel-Hartung, R. (1988). Contribution of polycyclic aromatic compounds to the carcinogenicity of sidestream smoke of cigarettes evaluated by implantation into the lungs of rats. Cancer Letters, 43(3), 173–177.

Grova, N., Rychen, G., Monteau, F., Le Bizec, B., & Feidt, C. (2006). Effect of oral exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on goat’s milk contamination. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 26(3), 195–199.

Gune, M. M., Ma, W.-L., Sampath, S., Li, W., Li, Y.-F., Udayashankar, H. N., … Zhang, Z. (2019). Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and soil surrounding a coal-fired thermal power plant in the south-west coast of India. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(22), 22772–22782.

Heintzman, L. J., Anderson, T. A., Carr, D. L., & McIntyre, N. E. (2015). Local and landscape influences on PAH contamination in urban stormwater. Landscape and Urban Planning, 142, 29–37.

Hindersmann, B., & Achten, C. (2018). Urban soils impacted by tailings from coal mining: PAH source identification by 59 PAHs, BPCA and alkylated PAHs. Environmental Pollution, 242, 1217–1225.

Honda, K., Mizukami, M., Ueda, Y., Hamada, N., & Seike, N. (2007). Residue level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Japanese paddy soils from 1959 to 2002. Chemosphere, 68(9), 1763–1771.

Hu, H., Kan, H., Kearney, G. D., & Xu, X. (2015). Associations between exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and glucose homeostasis as well as metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic adults. Science of the Total Environment, 505, 56–64.

Hu, T., Zhang, J., Ye, C., Zhang, L., Xing, X., Zhang, Y., … Zhang, Q. (2017). Status, source and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil from the water-level-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 172, 20–28.

Inomata, Y., Kajino, M., Sato, K., Ohara, T., Kurokawa, J.-I., Ueda, H., … Akimoto, H. (2012). Emission and atmospheric transport of particulate PAHs in Northeast Asia. Environmental Science & Technology, 46(9), 4941–4949.

Jensen, H., Reimann, C., Finne, T. E., Ottesen, R. T., & Arnoldussen, A. (2007). PAH-concentrations and compositions in the top 2 cm of forest soils along a 120 km long transect through agricultural areas, forests and the city of Oslo, Norway. Environmental Pollution, 145(3), 829–838.

Jiang, Y.-F., Wang, X.-T., Wang, F., Jia, Y., Wu, M.-H., Sheng, G.-Y., & Fu, J.-M. (2009). Levels, composition profiles and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban soil of Shanghai, China. Chemosphere, 75(8), 1112–1118.

Jung, K. H., Kim, J. K., Noh, J. H., Eun, J. W., Bae, H. J., Kim, M. G., … Kwon, S. H. (2013). Characteristic molecular signature for the early detection and prediction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rat liver. Toxicology Letters, 216(1), 1–8.

Kamangar, F., Schantz, M. M., Abnet, C. C., Fagundes, R. B., & Dawsey, S. M. (2008). High levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mate drinks. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers, 17(5), 1262–1268.

Kameda, Y., Shirai, J., Komai, T., Nakanishi, J., & Masunaga, S. (2005). Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: size distribution, estimation of their risk and their depositions to the human respiratory tract. Science of the Total Environment, 340(1–3), 71–80.

Kasaraneni, V., & Oyanedel-Craver, V. (2016). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination in Soils of San Mateo Ixtatán, Guatemala: Occurrence, Sources, and Health Risk Assessment. Journal of Environment Quality, 45. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2015.11.0585

Katsoyiannis, A., & Breivik, K. (2014). Model-based evaluation of the use of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons molecular diagnostic ratios as a source identification tool. Environmental Pollution, 184, 488–494.

Katsoyiannis, A., Terzi, E., & Cai, Q.-Y. (2007). On the use of PAH molecular diagnostic ratios in sewage sludge for the understanding of the PAH sources. Is this use appropriate? Chemosphere, 69(8), 1337–1339.

Khairy, M. A., & Lohmann, R. (2013). Source apportionment and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheric environment of Alexandria, Egypt. Chemosphere, 91(7), 895–903.

Khoshand, A., Tabiatnejad, B., Siddiqua, S., Kamalan, H. R., & Fathi, A. (2017). Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Contamination in Surface Soil along Tehran-Semnan Road, Iran. AUT Journal of Civil Engineering, 1(1), 77–86.

Kim, A. W., Vane, C. H., Moss-Hayes, V. L., Beriro, D. J., Nathanail, C. P., Fordyce, F. M., & Everett, P. A. (2019). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in urban soils of Glasgow, UK. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 108(2–3), 231–247.

Kim, K.-H., Jahan, S. A., Kabir, E., & Brown, R. J. C. (2013). A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their human health effects. Environment International, 60, 71–80.

Kim, L., Jeon, H.-J., Kim, Y.-C., Yang, S.-H., Choi, H., Kim, T.-O., & Lee, S.-E. (2019). Monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations and distributions in rice paddy soils from Gyeonggi-do, Ulsan, and Pohang. Applied Biological Chemistry, 62(1), 18.

King, A. J., Readman, J. W., & Zhou, J. L. (2004). Dynamic behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Brighton marina, UK. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 48(3–4), 229–239.

Klimkowicz-Pawlas, A., Smreczak, B., & Ukalska-Jaruga, A. (2017). The impact of selected soil organic matter fractions on the PAH accumulation in the agricultural soils from areas of different anthropopressure. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(12), 10955–10965.

Knoche, H., Klein, M., Kördel, W., Wahle, U., Hund, K., Müller, J., & Klein, W. (1995). Literaturstudie zur Ableitung von Bodengrenzwerten für polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK). Umweltbundesamt Berlin, Report, 107(3), 7.

Krauss, M., Wilcke, W., Martius, C., Bandeira, A. G., Garcia, M. V. B., & Amelung, W. (2005). Atmospheric versus biological sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a tropical rain forest environment. Environmental Pollution, 135(1), 143–154.

Kwon, H.-O., & Choi, S.-D. (2014). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils from a multi-industrial city, South Korea. Science of the Total Environment, 470, 1494–1501.

Lai, Y.-C., Tsai, C.-H., Chen, Y.-L., & Chang-Chien, G.-P. (2017). Distribution and sources of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at an industrial region in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Aerosol Air Qual. Res, 17, 776–787.

Lee, B. M., & Shim, G. A. (2007). Dietary exposure estimation of benzo [a] pyrene and cancer risk assessment. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 70(15–16), 1391–1394.

Li, Q., Wu, J., Zhou, J., Sakiev, K., & Hofmann, D. (2020). Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in soils around two typical lakes in the western Tian Shan Mountains (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia): Local burden or global distillation? Ecological Indicators, 108, 105749.

Liu, B., Xue, Z., Zhu, X., & Jia, C. (2017). Long-term trends (1990–2014), health risks, and sources of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the US. Environmental Pollution, 220, 1171–1179.

Liu, M., Feng, J., Hu, P., Tan, L., Zhang, X., & Sun, J. (2016). Spatial-temporal distributions, sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface water and suspended particular matter from the upper reach of Huaihe River, China. Ecological Engineering, 95, 143–151.

Liu, S., Xia, X., Yang, L., Shen, M., & Liu, R. (2010). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban soils of different land uses in Beijing, China: distribution, sources and their correlation with the city’s urbanization history. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 177(1–3), 1085–1092.

Liu, Y., Gao, P., Su, J., da Silva, E. B., de Oliveira, L. M., Townsend, T., … Ma, L. Q. (2019). PAHs in urban soils of two Florida cities: Background concentrations, distribution, and sources. Chemosphere, 214, 220–227.

Lv, Y., Li, X., Xu, T. T., Cheng, T. T., Yang, X., Chen, J. M., … Herrmann, H. (2016). Size distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban atmosphere: sorption mechanism and source contributions to respiratory deposition. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16(5), 2971–2983.

Maisto, G., De Nicola, F., Iovieno, P., Prati, M. V., & Alfani, A. (2006). PAHs and trace elements in volcanic urban and natural soils. Geoderma, 136(1–2), 20–27.

Maliszewska-Kordybach, B., Smreczak, B., & Klimkowicz-Pawlas, A. (2009). Concentrations, sources, and spatial distribution of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural soils in the Eastern part of the EU: Poland as a case study. Science of the Total Environment, 407(12), 3746–3753.

Maliszewska-Kordybach, B., Smreczak, B., Klimkowicz-Pawlas, A., & Terelak, H. (2008). Monitoring of the total content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in arable soils in Poland. Chemosphere, 73(8), 1284–1291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.07.009

Marquez‐Bravo, L. G., Briggs, D., Shayler, H., McBride, M., Lopp, D., Stone, E., … Spliethoff, H. M. (2016). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in New York City community garden soils: Potential sources and influential factors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 35(2), 357–367.

Martí-Cid, R., Llobet, J. M., Castell, V., & Domingo, J. L. (2008). Evolution of the dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Catalonia, Spain. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46(9), 3163–3171.

Masih, J., Singhvi, R., Taneja, A., Kumar, K., & Masih, H. (2012). Gaseous/particulate bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seasonal variation in North central part of rural India. Sustainable Cities and Society, 3, 30–36.

Mastral, A. M., & Callen, M. S. (2000). A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from energy generation. Environmental Science & Technology, 34(15), 3051–3057.

Mohd Radzi, N.-A.-S., Abu Bakar, N. K., Emenike, C. U., & Abas, M. R. (2016). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): contamination level and risk assessment in urban areas, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57(1), 171–190.

Moon, H.-B., Kannan, K., Lee, S.-J., & Ok, G. (2006). Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban and a suburban area of Korea from 2002 to 2004. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 51(4), 494–502.

Morillo González, E., Romero, A. S., Maqueda Porras, C., Madrid, L., Ajmone-Marsan, F., Grcman, H., … Villaverde Capellán, J. (2007). Soil pollution by PAHs in urban soils: a comparison of three european cities.

Mottier, P., Parisod, V., & Turesky, R. J. (2000). Quantitative determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in barbecued meat sausages by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(4), 1160–1166.

Moyo, S., McCrindle, R., Mokgalaka, N., Myburgh, J., & Mujuru, M. (2013). Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from polluted rivers. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 85(12), 2175–2196.

Murray, C. F. (1998). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Harvey, Ronald G.). Journal of Chemical Education, 75(11), 1392. https://doi.org/10.1021/ed075p1392

Nielsen, T., Jørgensen, H. E., Larsen, J. C., & Poulsen, M. (1996). City air pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other mutagens: occurrence, sources and health effects. Science of the Total Environment, 189, 41–49.

Nisbet, I. C. T., & Lagoy, P. K. (1992). Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 16(3), 290–300.


Ophoff, H., Stork, A., Veerkamp, W., & Führ, F. (1996). Volatilization and mineralization of [3-14C] fluoranthene after soil incorporation and soil surface application. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 64(2), 97–109.

Orecchio, S., & Papuzza, V. (2009). Levels, fingerprint and daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bread baked using wood as fuel. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 164(2–3), 876–883.

Ortiz, R., Vega, S., Gutiérrez, R., Gibson, R., Schettino, B., & de Lourdes Ramirez, M. (2012). Presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in top soils from rural terrains in Mexico City. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 88(3), 428–432.

Paatero, P. (1997). Least squares formulation of robust non-negative factor analysis. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 37(1), 23–35.

Paatero, P., & Tapper, U. (1994). Positive matrix factorization: A non‐negative factor model with optimal utilization of error estimates of data values. Environmetrics, 5(2), 111–126.

Perera, F. P., Tang, D., Wang, S., Vishnevetsky, J., Zhang, B., Diaz, D., … Rauh, V. (2012). Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and child behavior at age 6–7 years. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(6), 921–926.

Picasso, P. (2014). Principal Component Analysis Why Principal Component Analysis ? 1–5.

Pierzynski, G. M., Vance, G. F., & Sims, T. J. (2005). Soils and environmental quality. CRC press.

Pies, C., Hoffmann, B., Petrowsky, J., Yang, Y., Ternes, T. A., & Hofmann, T. (2008). Characterization and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in river bank soils. Chemosphere, 72(10), 1594–1601.

Pokhrel, B., Gong, P., Wang, X., Chen, M., Wang, C., & Gao, S. (2018). Distribution, sources, and air–soil exchange of OCPs, PCBs and PAHs in urban soils of Nepal. Chemosphere, 200, 532–541.

Pongpiachan, S., Tipmanee, D., Khumsup, C., Kittikoon, I., & Hirunyatrakul, P. (2015). Assessing risks to adults and preschool children posed by PM2. 5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during a biomass burning episode in Northern Thailand. Science of the Total Environment, 508, 435–444.

Qiao, M., Wang, C., Huang, S., Wang, D., & Wang, Z. (2006). Composition, sources, and potential toxicological significance of PAHs in the surface sediments of the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, China. Environment International, 32(1), 28–33.

Qu, C., Albanese, S., Lima, A., Hope, D., Pond, P., Fortelli, A., … De Vivo, B. (2019). The occurrence of OCPs, PCBs, and PAHs in the soil, air, and bulk deposition of the Naples metropolitan area, southern Italy: implications for sources and environmental processes. Environment International, 124, 89–97.

Ramalhosa, M. J., Paíga, P., Morais, S., Ramos, S., Delerue-Matos, C., & Oliveira, M. B. P. P. (2012). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in three pelagic fish species from Atlantic Ocean: inter-specific and inter-season comparisons and assessment of potential public health risks. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50(2), 162–167.

Ramesh, A., Archibong, A. E., & Niaz, M. S. (2010). Ovarian susceptibility to benzo [a] pyrene: tissue burden of metabolites and DNA adducts in F-344 rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 73(23), 1611–1625.

Rawash, E.-S., Mohamed, G., Souaya, E., Khalil, L., El-Chaghaby, G., & El-Gammal, M. (2018). Distribution and Health Hazards of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Egyptian Milk and Dairy-Based Products. Beverages, 4(3), 63.

Reff, A., Eberly, S. I., & Bhave, P. V. (2007). Receptor modeling of ambient particulate matter data using positive matrix factorization: review of existing methods. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 57(2), 146–154.

Reid, B. J., Jones, K. C., & Semple, K. T. (2000). Bioavailability of persistent organic pollutants in soils and sediments—a perspective on mechanisms, consequences and assessment. Environmental Pollution, 108(1), 103–112.

Reis, A. P. M., Shepherd, T., Nowell, G., Cachada, A., Duarte, A. C., Cave, M., … Rocha, F. (2016). Source and pathway analysis of lead and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Lisbon urban soils. Science of the Total Environment, 573, 324–336.

Ren, J., Wang, X., Wang, C., Gong, P., & Yao, T. (n.d.). Atmospheric processes of persistent organic pollutants over a remote lake of the central Tibetan Plateau: Implications for regional cycling 2.

Riaz, R., Ali, U., Li, J., Zhang, G., Alam, K., Sweetman, A. J., … Malik, R. N. (2019). Assessing the level and sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil and sediments along Jhelum riverine system of lesser Himalayan region of Pakistan. Chemosphere, 216, 640–652.

Roda, A., Simoni, P., Ferri, E. N., Girotti, S., lus, A., Rauch, P., … Hochel, I. (1999). Determination of PAHs in various smoked meat products and different samples by enzyme immunoassay. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 79(1), 58–62.

Rogge, W. F., Hildemann, L. M., Mazurek, M. A., Cass, G. R., & Simoneit, B. R. T. (1993). Sources of fine organic aerosol. 2. Noncatalyst and catalyst-equipped automobiles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Environmental Science & Technology, 27(4), 636–651.

Rose, M., White, S., Macarthur, R., Petch, R. G., Holland, J., & Damant, A. P. (2007). Single-laboratory validation of a GC/MS method for the determination of 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oils and fats. Food Additives and Contaminants, 24(6), 635–651.

Sanjrani, M. A., Mek, T., Sanjrani, N. D., Leghari, S. J., Moryani, H. T., & Shabnam, A. (2017). Current situation of aqueous arsenic contamination in Pakistan, focused on Sindh and Punjab Province, Pakistan: A review. J. Pollut. Eff. Cont, 5, 207.

Saraga, D. E., Maggos, T. E., Sfetsos, A., Tolis, E. I., Andronopoulos, S., Bartzis, J. G., & Vasilakos, C. (2010). PAHs sources contribution to the air quality of an office environment: experimental results and receptor model (PMF) application. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, 3(4), 225–234.

Sims, R. C., & Overcash, M. R. (1983). Fate of polynuclear aromatic compounds (PNAs) in soil-plant systems. In Residue reviews (pp. 1–68). Springer.

Slezakova, K., Castro, D., Delerue–Matos, C., da Conceição Alvim–Ferraz, M., Morais, S., & do Carmo Pereira, M. (2013). Impact of vehicular traffic emissions on particulate-bound PAHs: Levels and associated health risks. Atmospheric Research, 127, 141–147.

Sofowote, U. M., Allan, L. M., & McCarry, B. E. (2010). Evaluation of PAH diagnostic ratios as source apportionment tools for air particulates collected in an urban-industrial environment. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 12(2), 417–424.

Soukarieh, B., El Hawari, K., El Husseini, M., Budzinski, H., & Jaber, F. (2018). Impact of Lebanese practices in industry, agriculture and urbanization on soil toxicity. Evaluation of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels in soil. Chemosphere, 210, 85–92.

Sun, J., Pan, L., Tsang, D. C. W., Zhan, Y., Zhu, L., & Li, X. (2018). Organic contamination and remediation in the agricultural soils of China: a critical review. Science of the Total Environment, 615, 724–740.

Sun, R.-X., Lin, Q., Ke, C.-L., Du, F.-Y., Gu, Y.-G., Cao, K., … Mai, B.-X. (2016). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments and marine organisms from the Daya Bay, South China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 103(1–2), 325–332.

Tang, L., Tang, X.-Y., Zhu, Y.-G., Zheng, M.-H., & Miao, Q.-L. (2005). Contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban soils in Beijing, China. Environment International, 31(6), 822–828.

Tang, Z., Guo, J., Liao, H., Zhao, X., Wu, F., Zhu, Y., … Giesy, J. P. (2015). Spatial and temporal distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of Taihu Lake, eastern China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(7), 5350–5358. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3746-2

Tobiszewski, M. (2014). Application of diagnostic ratios of PAHs to characterize the pollution emission sources. 2014 Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, 69.

Tobiszewski, M., & Namieśnik, J. (2012). PAH diagnostic ratios for the identification of pollution emission sources. Environmental Pollution, 162, 110–119.

Tomaz, S., Shahpoury, P., Jaffrezo, J.-L., Lammel, G., Perraudin, E., Villenave, E., & Albinet, A. (2016). One-year study of polycyclic aromatic compounds at an urban site in Grenoble (France): Seasonal variations, gas/particle partitioning and cancer risk estimation. Science of The Total Environment, 565, 1071–1083.

Tongo, I., Ezemonye, L., & Akpeh, K. (2017). Levels, distribution and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Ovia river, Southern Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 5(1), 504–512.

Unwin, J., Cocker, J., Scobbie, E., & Chambers, H. (2006). An assessment of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the UK. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 50(4), 395–403.

Van Brummelen, T. C., Verweij, R. A., Wedzinga, S. A., & Van Gestel, C. A. M. (1996). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in earthworms and isopods from contaminated forest soils. Chemosphere, 32(2), 315–341.

Vane, C. H., Kim, A. W., Beriro, D. J., Cave, M. R., Knights, K., Moss-Hayes, V., & Nathanail, P. C. (2014). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in urban soils of Greater London, UK. Applied Geochemistry, 51, 303–314.

Wang, C., Wu, S., Zhou, S., Wang, H., Li, B., Chen, H., … Shi, Y. (2015). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from urban to rural areas in Nanjing: Concentration, source, spatial distribution, and potential human health risk. Science of the Total Environment, 527, 375–383.

Wang, R., Yousaf, B., Sun, R., Zhang, H., Zhang, J., & Liu, G. (2016). Emission characterization and δ13C values of parent PAHs and nitro-PAHs in size-segregated particulate matters from coal-fired power plants. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 318, 487–496.

Wang, Y., Bao, M., Zhang, Y., Tan, F., Zhao, H., Zhang, Q., & Li, Q. (2020). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere and soils of Dalian, China: Source, urban-rural gradient, and air-soil exchange. Chemosphere, 244, 125518. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125518

Wang, Z., Liu, S., & Zhang, T. (2019). Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil horizon from high-altitude mountains in Northeastern China. Chemosphere, 225, 93–103.

Wennrich, L., Popp, P., & Zeibig, M. (2002). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon burden in fruit and vegetable species cultivated in allotments in an industrial area. International Journal of Environmental & Analytical Chemistry, 82(10), 667–690.

Westerholm, R., & Li, H. (1994). A multivariate statistical analysis of fuel-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Environmental Science & Technology, 28(5), 965–972.

Westgate, J. N., & Wania, F. (2013). Model-based exploration of the drivers of mountain cold-trapping in soil. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 15(12), 2220–2232.

Wilcke, W., Krauss, M., Safronov, G., Fokin, A. D., & Kaupenjohann, M. (2005). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of the Moscow region—concentrations, temporal trends, and small-scale distribution. Journal of Environmental Quality, 34(5), 1581–1590.

Williams, R., Meares, J., Brooks, L., Watts, R., & Lemieux, P. (1994). Priority pollutant PAH analysis of incinerator emission particles using HPLC and optimized fluorescence detection. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 54(4), 299–314.

Włóka, D., & Smol, M. (2014). Evaluation of extraction methods of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil and sewage sludge matrix. Inżynieria I Ochrona Środowiska, 17.

Wu, C., Zhu, H., Luo, Y., & Wang, J. (2016). Concentrations and potential health hazards of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in shallow groundwater of a metal smelting area in Southeastern China. Science of The Total Environment, 569, 1561–1569.

Wu, S.-P., Yang, B.-Y., Wang, X.-H., Yuan, C.-S., & Hong, H.-S. (2014). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of two subtropical cities in Southeast China: seasonal variation and gas/particle partitioning. Aerosol Air Qual. Res, 14, 1232–1246.

Wu, S., Liu, X., Hou, L., Chen, X., Liu, S., Lin, X., & Li, Y. (2017). Sources, influencing factors and environmental indications of PAH pollution in urban soil columns of Shanghai, China. Ecological Indicators, 85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.11.067

Xia, Z., Duan, X., Qiu, W., Liu, D., Wang, B., Tao, S., … Hu, X. (2010). Health risk assessment on dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Taiyuan, China. Science of the Total Environment, 408(22), 5331–5337.

Xia, Z., Duan, X., Tao, S., Qiu, W., Liu, D., Wang, Y., … Lu, B. (2013). Pollution level, inhalation exposure and lung cancer risk of
ambient atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Taiyuan, China. Environmental Pollution, 173, 150–156.

Yang, D., Qi, S., Zhang, Y., Xing, X., Liu, H., Qu, C., … Li, F. (2013). Levels, sources and potential risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in multimedia environment along the Jinjiang River mainstream to Quanzhou Bay, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 76(1–2), 298–306.

Yoon, E., Park, K., Lee, H., Yang, J.-H., & Lee, C. (2007). Estimation of excess cancer risk on time-weighted lifetime average daily intake of PAHs from food ingestion. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 13(3), 669–680.

Yu, H., Li, T., Liu, Y., & Ma, L. (2019). Spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in urban soil of China. Chemosphere.

Yunker, M. B., Macdonald, R. W., Vingarzan, R., Mitchell, R. H., Goyette, D., & Sylvestre, S. (2002). PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition. Organic Geochemistry, 33(4), 489–515.

Yurdakul, S., Çelik, I., Çelen, M., Öztürk, F., & Cetin, B. (2019). Levels, temporal/spatial variations and sources of PAHs and PCBs in soil of a highly industrialized area. Atmospheric Pollution Research.

Zeng, Q., Jeppesen, E., Gu, X., Mao, Z., & Chen, H. (2018). Distribution, fate and risk assessment of PAHs in water and sediments from an aquaculture-and shipping-impacted subtropical lake, China. Chemosphere, 201, 612–620.

Zhang, J., Wang, P., Li, J., Mendola, P., Sherman, S., & Ying, Q. (2016). Estimating population exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the United States–Part II: Source apportionment and cancer risk assessment. Environment International, 97, 163–170.

Zhang, W., Zhang, S., Wan, C., Yue, D., Ye, Y., & Wang, X. (2008). Source diagnostics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban road runoff, dust, rain and canopy throughfall. Environmental Pollution, 153(3), 594–601.

Zhang, Y., Tao, S., Shen, H., & Ma, J. (2009). Inhalation exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and lung cancer risk of Chinese population. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(50), 21063–21067.

Zhi, H., Zhao, Z., & Zhang, L. (2015). The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water from Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China. Chemosphere, 119, 1134–1140.

Zhong, W., & Wang, M. (2002). Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetables from northern China. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 37(2), 287–296.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1995. Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.

Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2010. Public Health Statement. August 1995. Accessed 12-09

Air Quality Standard in China, Regulatory Documents of G.B.3095-2012, 2012. https:// transportpolicy.net/index.php?title=China: Air_Quality_Standards (last accessed 18.07.2017).

Air Quality Standard in India, (n.d.) https://arthapedia.in/index.php?title= Ambient_Air_Quality_Standards_in_India (last accessed 18.07.2017).

Environment Canada (1994) Canadian Environmental Protection Act Priority Sub-Stances List assessment report: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Ottawa, Ontario, Supply and Services Canada, 61 pp

European Commission, 2011. Commission regulation 835/2011 of 19 August 2011 amending Regulation (EC) EC no. 1881/2006 as regards maximum levels for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in foodstuffs. Off. J. Eur. Union L215, 4–8.

European Food Safety Authority, Food Consumption, Database, 2008. https://efsa.europa.eu/EFSA/ScientificPanels/efsa_locale1178620753812_DATEX.htm.

European Union (EU), 2006. Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. J Eur Union L: 364/5.

IARC, 1983. Polynuclear aromatic compounds, Part 1, Chemical, environmental, and experimental data. Iarc Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Hum, 32(1): 1-453.

IPCS (International Programme on Chemical Safety). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons selected non-heterocyclic; 2010. .

IPCS (International Programme on Chemical Safety). Selected nonheterocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environmental Health Criteria 202. Geneva: WHO; 1998.

WHO (1997) Non-heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Geneva, World Health Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety (Environ-mental Health Criteria 202) (in press)

WHO Classification. International Program on Chemical Safety. Environmen-tal Health Criteria 202, SelectedNon-Heterocyclic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. 1998. Available online: https://inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc202.htm (accessed on 12 January 2017).