Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Amygdalin in Sweet and Bitter Almond Kernel in Erbil City Using GC-FID Technique

Authors: Kamal M. Mahmoud1 & Roza T. Yasin2
1 Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq
2 Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq

Abstract:This paper described the determination of amygdalin in sweet and bitter almond kernel in Erbil City using GC-FID technique. The effect of wavelength, selecting the best solvent as a mobile phase, flow rate, injection volume, pH, and temperature had been studied, in which the flow rate 10.0 ml min-1 at the concentration range (20-600) μg ml-1 with correlation coefficient and relative error (0.9990, 1.501%) respectively.

Keywords: Determination, Almond, Amygdalin, GC-FID

Download the PDF Document

doi: 10.23918/eajse.v5i1p25


Agilent Technologies, (2002). Fundamental of Gas Chromatography. 1st Edition. Agilent Technologies. USA. P. 9-10.

Agunbiade, S., O., & Olanlokun, J., O. (2006). Evaluation of some nutritional characteristics of Indian Almond (Prunus amygdalus) nut. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 5 (4), 316-318.

Arrázola, G., Sánchez, R., Dicenta, F., & Grané, N. (2012). Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype. Agronomía Colombiana, 30 (2), 260-265.

Funazo, K., Tanaka, M., & Shono, T. (1981). Determination of cyanide or thiocyanate at trace levels by derivation and gas chromatography with flame thermionic. Anal. Chem. 53 (9), 1377-1380.

Godtfredsen, S., E., Kjaer, A., Madsen, J., O., & Sponholtz, M. (1978). Bitterness in aqueous extracts of apricot kernel. Acta Chemica Scandinavica B. 32, 588-592.

Hajslova, J., & Cajka, T., (2007). Gas chromatography mass spectrometry(GC-MS). Food Toxicants Analysis, 419.

Hale, S. (2012), Fundamental of gas chromatography. Emerson process management. Rosemount Analytical, 1-7.

Hussain, M. A. (2008). Isolation, Purification and Identification of Pigments from Cherry Fruit and their Applications Using Spectrophotometric Titration and Reverse Flow Injection Analysis Chemiluminescence Detection. M.SC. Thesis. University of Salahaddin. Erbil.

Liang, X., T., & Fang, W., S. (2006). Medicinal Chemistry of Bioactive Natural Products. A John Wiley & Sons. Inc., USA.

Lv, W., Ding, M., & Zheng, R. (2005). Isolation and quantitation of amygdalin in apricot-kernel and Prunus tomentosa Thunb. By HPLC with solid-phase extraction. Journal of Chromatographic Science, 43, 383-387.

Miao, X., Zhao, Zh., Zhu, H., Li, M., & Zhao, Q. (2013). Comparison of second derivative spectrophotometry and HPLC for determination of amygdalin in wild apricot kernels. Science Asia, 39, 444-447.

Moertel, C., G., Fleming, T., R., Rubin, J., Kuols, L., K., Sarna, G., Koch, R., Currie, V., E., Young, C., W., Jones, S., E., Davigon, J., R. (1982). A clinical trial of amygdalin (Laetrile) in the treatment of human cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine, 306, 201-206.

Nurhan, A., San, B., Koyuncu, F., & Yildirim, F. (2010). Variability of phenolics, α-tocopherol and amygdalin contents of selected almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch.) genotypes. Journal of Food. Agriculture & Environment, 8 (1), 76-79.

Rood, D. (2007). Introduction to Capillary Gas Chromatography. 4th Edition. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Roza, T. Y. (2015). Quantitative Analysis of Amygdalin and Some Metals in Sweet and Bitter Almond Kernel in Erbil City. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Salahaddin. Erbil.

Urias, K. R. (2002). Experimental Studies in Temperature Programmed Gas Chromatography. M.Sc. Thesis. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Yan, J., Tong, Sh., & Li, J. (2006). Preparative isolation and purification of amygdalin from prunus armeniaca L. with high recovery by high-speed countercurrent chromatography. Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, 29, 1271-1279.

Zhao, Y. (2012). Amygdalin content in four stone fruit species at different developmental stages. Science Asia, 38, 218-222.