Essential and Trace Element Contents from Nonea Pulmonarioides by Using Micro-Wave Assisted Digestion, Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Faiq H.S. Hussain1 & Rostam R. Braiem2 & Fuad O. Abdullah3
1Research Center, Ishik University, Erbil, Iraq
2Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq
3Research Center & Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq

Abstract:  Determination of elements in the medicinal plants plays a paramount role in the treatment of illness. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) the utilization of traditional medicines spreading not only in the developing countries but, also in the industrial ones, as a complementary way of treatment. In this study, for the first time, some elemental analyses, of Nonea pulmonarioides growing in Kurdistan are carried out using ICP-OES and ICP-MS techniques. The results showed that the contents of the elements such as, B, Ba, Al, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, K, La, Li, Mn, Nd, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V, Y, Zn and Zr are between 1-100 mg/kg. K has the highest concentration in the aerial components (3980 mg/kg), followed by Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, P and S) (2460, 492, 467, 460, 328 and 260mg/kg) respectively, and are considered as essential elements of aerial components from Nonea pulmonarioides. Low concentrations of Pt were recorded from 0.002 and 0.001mg/kg of aerial parts and roots respectively in N. pulmonarioides. The element analysis by using ICP-MS and ICP OES demonstrated the sensitive methods for determination of elements in N. pulmonarioides. These results can facilitate any study of this medicinal plant as there is not enough cognizance of this plant within the literature.

Keywords: Nonea Pulmonarioides, Medicinal Plants, Elemental Analysis, ICP-MS and ICP-OES
Download the PDF Document from here.

doi: 10.23918/eajse.v4i4p76


Alsamarkandi, N. (1985). Principles of drugs composition (Esool Tarkeeb Aladwaii), investigated by Neglai Fathi University of Baghdad Publication (Center for the Revival of Arab Scientific Heritage), Baghdad, 23-46.

Avicenna, (1980). Law in medicine (Alkanoon Fe Aldheb). Beirut: Al-Ma’aref Library Publications.

Bhanisana, D. R. K., & Sarma, H.N.K. (2013). Profile of trace elements in selected medicinal plants of North East India. Journal of Applied Physics, 4, 2278-4861.

Dileep, N., Rakesh, K., Junaid, S., Ramesh, K., Prashith, K., &  Vinayaka, K. (2013). Elemental analysis (ICP-OES) and anticariogenic activity of leaf and bark of Fahrenheitia Zeylanica  (Thew.) Airy. ActaChim. Pharm. Indica,  3, 255-260.

Evan,  M., & Hugo, D. (2011). Ethnobotany and trade of medicinal plants in the Qaysari market-Erbil, Kurdistan Autonomous Region, Iraq. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 133, 490-510.

Feng, X., Wu, S., Wharmby, A., & Wittmeier, A. (1999). Microwave digestion of plant and grain standard reference materials in nitric and hydrofluoric acids for multi-elemental determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 14, 939–946.

Fuad, O., Faiq, H. S., Abdullah, S., Paola, V. F., & Giovani, V. (2017).  Determination of some elements from wild Pterocephalus nestorianus Nab. Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 29, 83-89.

Fuad, O., Faiq, H. S., Abdullah, S., Paola, V. F., & Giovani, V. (2016).  phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology of medicinal plants used on Safeen mountain in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Natural Product Communications, 11, 1923-1927.

Fuad, O., Faiq, H. S., Barbara, M., Rosamaria, L., Solveig, T., Marcello, M., & Giovanni, V. (2018). Composition, antifungal and antiproliferative activities of the hydrodistilled oils from leaves and flower heads of Pterocephalus nestorianus. Chemistry and Biodiversity, 14, 1-8.

Guierrero, J., Martirey, J., & Irosa, M. (1998). Mineral elements determination in wild edible plants.  Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 11, 322.

Hanawa, F., Tahara, S., & Mizutani, J. (1993).  Isoflavanoids produced by Iris psudacorus leaves treated with cupric chloride. Phytochemistry, 30, 157-163.

Imelouane, B., Tahri, M., Elbastrioui, M., Aouinti, F., & Elbachiri, A. (2011). Mineral contents of some medicinal and aromatic plants growing in Eastern Morocco. Journal of Materials and Environmental Science. 2, 104-111.

Intidhar, D., Rafea, K., & Jasm, D. (2013). Determination of some essential elements in Iraqi medicinal herbs. Ibn Al-Haitham. Journal for Pure & Applied Science, 26, 234-240.

Myagmar, B. E., & Aniya, Y. (2000). Free radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Mongolia. Phytomedicine,7, 221-229

Ora Laboratory Manual, (2013). FDA Office of Regulatory affairs, 4, 2- 13.

Rodushkin, I., Ruth, T., & Huhtasaari, A. (1999). Comparison of two digestion methods for  elemental determinations in plant material by ICP techniques. Analytica Chimica Acta, 378, 191-200.

Samira, I., Mohamad, M., Mohammad, Al-Z., & Rosin, S. (2013). Metal concentration in commonly used medicinal herbs and infusion by Lebanese population: Health impact. Journal of Food Research, 2, 70-82.

Selvi, F., & Bigazzi, M., (2001). The Nonea pulla group (Boraginaceae) in Turkey. Plant Systematics and Evolution Journal, 227, 1-26.

Veldkamp, J., & Zonneveld,  B. (2012).  The infrageneric nomenclature of Tulipa (Liliaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution Journal, 298, 87-92

World Health Organization. Dept. of Technical Cooperation for Essential Drugs and Traditional Medicine, (2007). WHO guidelines for assessing quality of herbal medicines with reference to contaminants and residues. Geneva: World Health Organization. URI:

Wu, S., Feng, X., & Wittmeier, A. (1997). Microwave digestion of plant and grain reference materials in nitric acid or a mixture of nitric acid or a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide for the determination of multi-elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 12, 797- 806.

Xie, G., Chen, Y., Wenr,  X., Wu, S., & Qin, M. (2014). Chemical constituents from rhizomes of Iris Germanica. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, 39, 846- 850.