Corridor Based Horizontal Highway Alignment Optimization Using GIS and Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Botan Majeed Ahmad AL-Hadad1&2
1Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil Technology Institute, Erbil, Iraq
2Ishik University, Erbil, Iraq

Abstract:  Optimization of highway alignment is a complex nonlinear combinatorial problem. The development of an optimum highway alignment within a study area has always been the case for transportation engineers. The wide search spaces have made the evaluation of thousands of alternative highway alignment solutions complex and expensive in terms of time and cost. Search overburdening is time consuming and may not guarantee optimum results. Thus the capability for specifying the fruitless areas may help reducing the wasted time and consequently producing better results. In this study a model for horizontal highway alignment optimization is built in two stages using GIS and GA. In the first stage, a cost model based on land use and alignment construction costs are embedded in a GIS model to narrow down the search space from the whole to a corridor. The second stage, the same GIS cost model are embedded in a GA model to search the corridor for optimum horizontal highway alignment. The alignment configuration of these two stages modeling is based on the notion of station point approach which was previously developed by the author. It is expected that search in narrower areas result in less candidate evaluation thus reducing the processing time and better results. Thus the focus of the search will fall on the optimality of the alignment more than consuming time searching forsaken areas. The results showed that time is no more wasted searching the whole study area and a GIS model is able to define a corridor where best solution is existed through which the GA model could establish an optimum highway alignment solution.

Keywords: Horizontal Highway Alignment, Optimization, Genetic Algorithm (GA), GIS

Download the PDF Document from here.

doi: 10.23918/eajse.v4i2p98


AL-Hadad, B. M., & Mowdesley, M. (2010). A Genetic Algorithm Approach to a 3D Highway Alignment Development, Proceedings of the international conference on evolutionary computation (ICEC 2010), Valencia, Spain.

AL-Hadad, B. M. (2011). An approach to the highway alignment development process using genetic algorithm based optimization. PhD thesis, The University of Nottingham, UK.

AL-Hadad, B.M., Allaf, M.D., Mahmood, G.A., & Nadir, W.H. (2016). A Two Dimensional GIS Model for Highway Alignment Corridor Search. The Proceedings of the 2nd International Engineering Conference on Developments in Civil & Computer Engineering Applications (IEC 2016), Erbil, Iraq.

Beasley, D., Bull, D.R., & Martin, R.R. (1993). An overview of genetic algorithms: Part 1 fundamentals. University of Computing, 15(2), 58-69.

Chew, E.P., Goh, C. J., & Fwa, T.F. (1989). Simultaneous optimization of horizontal and vertical alignments of highways. Transportation research, 23B(5), 315-329.

Davis, L. (1991). Handbook of genetic algorithms. New York:  Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Fwa, T. F., Chan, W. T., & Sim, Y. P. (2002). Optimal vertical alignment analysis for highway design.  Journal of Transportation Engineering, 128(5), 395-402.

Ford, M. (2007). A genetic algorithm based decision support system for the sustainable location of development allocations. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Nottingham, UK.

Goktepe, A. B., Lav, A. H., & Altun, S. (2005). Dynamic Optimization Algorithms for Vertical Alignment of Highways. Mathematical and Computational Applications, 10(3), 341 -350.

Hare, W., Koch, V.R., & Lucet, Y. (2011). Models and algorithms to improve earthwork operations in road design using mixed integer linear programming. European Journal of Operational Research, 215(2), 470- 480.

Hirpa, D., Hare, W., Lucet, Y., Pushak, Y., & Tesfamariam, S. (2016). A bi-objective optimization framework for three-dimensional road alignment design, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Vol. 65, 61-78.

Jong, J. C. (1998). Optimizing highway alignments with genetic algorithms. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, USA.

Jha, M. K., & Maji, A. (2007). A multi-objective genetic algorithm for optimizing highway alignments. The IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Multi-criteria Decision Making (MCDM), Honolulu, HI, USA.

Kang, M.W. (2008). An alignment optimisation model for a simple highway network. PhD Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, USA.

Lee, Y., Tsou, Y. R., & Liu, H.L. (2009). Optimization method for highway horizontal alignment design. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 135(4), 217-224.

Mathews, K.B., Craws, S., Mackenzie, I., Elder, S., & Sibbald, A.R. (1999). Applying genetic algorithms to land use planning. In: Proceedings of the 18th Workshop of the UK Planning and Scheduling Spatial Interest Group, 1999, University of Salford, UK.

Mawdesley, M.J., AL-Jibouri, S.H., & Yang, H. (2002). Genetic algorithms for construction site layout in project planning. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 128 (5), 418-426.

Michalewicz, Z. (1999). Genetic algorithms + data structures = evolution programs. USA: Springer-Verlag.

OECD (1973). Optimization of road alignment by the use of computers. ProQuest.

Tat, C.W., & Tao, F. (2003). Using GIS and genetic algorithms in highway alignment optimization. Intelligent Transportation System, 2, 1563-1567.