Long-term Evaluation of Temporal Variation in Groundwater Physicochemical Quality: A Case Study of Erbil City, Iraq (2003 – 2015)

Authors: Hayder Mohammed Issa1
1University of Garmian, Kalar, Sulaimaniyah Province 46021, Iraq

Abstract:  Groundwater resources within Erbil City are facing a growing decline during the last decade as a result of increased water consumption, and climate change. Understanding the temporal variance of groundwater quality and showing an image of the historical physicochemical state of Erbil City groundwater are essential to identify potential pollution and to assist sustainable programs of groundwater management. In this study, a wide-ranging evaluation of groundwater physicochemical quality has been performed over a period of 2003-2015. It was found that sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and nitrate are the most significant parameters contributing to groundwater quality variations. These variations are mainly resulted from natural geological sources and much less from anthropogenic activities. The results showed that the groundwater abstraction didn’t cause a drastic alteration in groundwater quality. Significant recharging has relatively enhanced the groundwater quality in certain years at intermittent intervals. The study aids to establish a prediction tool for groundwater quality in the study area.

Keywords: Groundwater Quality, Groundwater Level Decline, Physicochemical Properties, Temporal Differences, Multivariate Analysis, Quality Index; Erbil City

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doi: 10.23918/eajse.v4i1sip32


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