Mathematical Modeling of the Impact of Cell Phone Radiation on the Human Brain

Authors: Azeez Abdullah Barzinjy1&2 & Najim Hama-Amin2 & Ari Othman2
1Department of Physics, College of Education, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq
2Department of Physics Education, Faculty of Education, Ishik University, Erbil, Iraq

Abstract:  The human brain is conscious to tiny variations in temperature. Temperature rises have impact on enzyme mission, which lead to expected undesirable organic repercussions. Alive tissues are insulating materials, which are exposed to insulation heating through radiation. The cell phone is a communal basis of radiation. Ordinary people normally keep their mobile phones beside their ears, which might aggravate the impacts of radiation, and then, temperature alteration. The level at which point tissue engrosses heat from radiation is known as the specific absorption rate, i.e. SAR. Over interpretations of SAR standards, the thermal implication of the electromagnetic wave heating of insincere tissue inside the brain can be calculated. The aim of this investigation is to model heating of tissue sheets inside the brain caused by mobile phone radiation subjection by means of COMSOL Multiphysics so as to assess effects of mobile phone use on brain occupation. This can be done by means of leading equations for electromagnetic waves and temperature. Also, Maxwell’s equation for electromagnetic waves has been utilized to control the electric field and the SAR that would regulate heat generation relations. The 3D heat equation was then utilized to govern the temperature rising inside the brain after an explicit time period. 3D was essential meanwhile there is no regularity in the head in the attendance of a mobile phone. To precisely pretend thermo controlling procedures in the head, metabolic heat generation from these tissues and convective blood pour were comprised in the heat calculation.

Keywords: Cell Phone Radiation, Mobile Phone, Human Brain, Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), COMSOL Multiphysics

Download the PDF Document from here.


doi: 10.23918/eajse.v3i3p52


References
Abdulrazzaq, S. A., & Aziz, J. S. (2013). SAR simulation in human head exposed to RF signals and
safety precautions. International Journal of Science, Engineering and Computer
Technology, 3(9), 334.
Agar, J. (2013). Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone. Icon Books Ltd.
Al-Baghdadi, M. A. S. (2010). Novel design of a compacted micro-structured air-breathing PEM
fuel cell as a power source for mobile phones. International Journal of Energy and
Environment IJEE, 1(4), 555-572.
Angelova, R. A. (2017). Working in Cold Environment: Clothing and Thermophysiological
Comfort. In Occupational Health.
Aronsson, N., & Askeroth, D. (2002). A Comparative Study of Electromagnetic Dosimetric
Simulations and Measurements. Citeseer.
Christ, A., Gosselin, M.-C., Christopoulou, M., Kühn, S., & Kuster, N. (2010). Age-dependent
tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users. Physics in Medicine & Biology, 55(7), 1767.
Cvetković, M., Poljak, D., & Hirata, A. (2016). The electromagnetic-thermal dosimetry for the
homogeneous human brain model. Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 63, 61-
73.
Dlouhý, J. (2008). The thermal Distribution and the SAR Calculation of RF Signal Inside the Human
Head. Doctoral Degree Programme, Dept. Elect. Eng. and Comm., Brno Univ. of Tech.,
Brno, Czech Republic.
Dlouhý, J., & Rozman, J. (2008). The thermal distribution and the SAR calculation of RF signal
inside the human head. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 14th Conference
STUDENT EEICT.
Duck, F. A. (2013). Physical Properties of Tissues: A Comprehensive Reference Book. Academic
Press.
Farley, T. (2005). Mobile telephone history. Telektronikk, 101(3/4), 22.
Faruque, M. R. I., Islam, M. T., & Misran, N. (2011). Analysis of electromagnetic absorption in
mobile phones using metamaterials. Electromagnetics, 31(3), 215-232.
Hall, E. J., & Giaccia, A. J. (2006). Radiobiology for the Radiologist. Lippincott Williams &
Wilkins.
Ismail, N. (2007). Modeling of electromagnetic wave penetration in a human head due to emissions
from cellular phone. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia.
Jose, A., & Lee, S.-M. (2007). Environmental reporting of global corporations: A content analysis
based on website disclosures. Journal of Business Ethics, 72(4), 307-321.
Kaplan, W. A. (2006). Can the ubiquitous power of mobile phones be used to improve health
outcomes in developing countries? Globalization and Health, 2(1), 9.
Kargel, C. (2005). Infrared thermal imaging to measure local temperature rises caused by handheld
mobile phones. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 54(4), 1513-1519.
Kerker, M. (2016). The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation. Elsevier.
Krishna, S., Boren, S. A., & Balas, E. A. (2009). Healthcare via cell phones: a systematic review.
Telemedicine and e-Health, 15(3), 231-240.
Leabman, M. A., & Brewer, G. S. (2016). External or Internal Receiver for Smart Mobile Devices.
Google Patents.
Levoy, M. (2001). The Stanford volume data archive. Retrieved from
http://graphics.stanford.edu/data/voldata.
Makris, N., Angelone, L., Tulloch, S., Sorg, S., Kaiser, J., Kennedy, D., & Bonmassar, G. (2008).
MRI-based anatomical model of the human head for specific absorption rate mapping.
Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, 46(12), 1239-1251.
Manapati, M., & Kshetrimayum, R. (2009). SAR reduction in human head from mobile phone
radiation using single negative metamaterials. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and
Applications, 23(10), 1385-1395.
Moon, S.W., Prstic, S., & Chiu, C.P. (2008). Thermal management of a stacked-die package in a
handheld electronic device using passive solutions. IEEE Transactions on Components and
Packaging Technologies, 31(1), 204-210.
Moulder, J., Erdreich, L., Malyapa, R., Merritt, J., Pickard, W., & Vijayalaxmi. (1999). Cell phones
and cancer: What is the evidence for a connection? Radiation Research, 151(5), 513-531.
Nunez, P. L., & Srinivasan, R. (2006). Electric Fields of the Brain: The Neurophysics of EEG:
Oxford University Press, USA.
Oliphant, M. W. (1999). The mobile phone meets the Internet. IEEE Spectrum, 36(8), 20-28.
Pakkathillam, J. K., & Kanagasabai, M. (2017). Circularly polarised multiservice RFID antenna. IET
Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, 11(2), 232-239.
Siauve, N., Scorretti, R., Burais, N., Nicolas, L., & Nicolas, A. (2003). Electromagnetic fields and
human body: a new challenge for the electromagnetic field computation. COMPEL-The
International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic
Engineering, 22(3), 457-469.
Tomovski, B., Gräbner, F., Hungsberg, A., Kallmeyer, C., & Linsel, M. (2011). Effects of
electromagnetic field over a human body, sar simulation with and without nanotextile in the
frequency range 0.9-1.8 GHz. Journal of Electrical Engineering, 62(6), 349-354.
Tyras, G. (2013). Radiation and Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves. Academic Press.
Vander, A., Rosen, A., & Kotsuka, Y. (2006). RF/Microwave Interaction with Biological Tissues
(Vol. 181): John Wiley & Sons.
Wainwright, P. (2000). Thermal effects of radiation from cellular telephones. Physics in Medicine
and Biology, 45(8), 2363.
Wessapan, T., & Rattanadecho, P. (2012). Numerical analysis of specific absorption rate and heat
transfer in human head subjected to mobile phone radiation: Effects of user age and radiated
power. Journal of Heat Transfer, 134(12), 121101.
Wessapan, T., Srisawatdhisukul, S., & Rattanadecho, P. (2012). Specific absorption rate and
temperature distributions in human head subjected to mobile phone radiation at different
frequencies. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 55(1-3), 347-359.
Wiart, J., Hadjem, A., Wong, M., & Bloch, I. (2008). Analysis of RF exposure in the head tissues of
children and adults. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 53(13), 3681.
Zhadobov, M., Alekseev, S. I., Le Dréan, Y., Sauleau, R., & Fesenko, E. E. (2015). Millimeter
waves as a source of selective heating of skin. Bioelectromagnetics, 36(6), 464-475.
Zhao, T.-Y., Zou, S.-P., & Knapp, P. E. (2007). Exposure to cell phone radiation up-regulates
apoptosis genes in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes. Neuroscience Letters, 412(1),
34-38.
Zwebner, Y., Lee, L., & Goldenberg, J. (2014). The temperature premium: Warm temperatures
increase product valuation. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 24(2), 251-259.