Authors : Badia’a Mahmoud Al-Chalabi1 & Bizheen Naji Taha1
1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zakho, Iraq
1Dohuk, Kazheen School, Iraq
Abstract: The present study was conducted in Duhok city to evaluate the cumulative biological effects of aqueous extract for (Urtica pilulifera) which is widely abundant in Iraqi Kurdistan region against the mosquito (Culex pipiens L.) using different concentrations (4- 16 mg/ml) on all immature stages of mosquito. The cumulative effect of the Plant extract significantly affected the hatchability of eggs, mortality rate and elongation the duration of the larvae and pupae of C. pipiens. The eggs mortality was concentration dependent. The highest incubation period of eggs was found to be 5 days at a concentration of 16 mg/ml. Also the total growth period from the egg to adult reached 21.5 days with the concentration 12 mg /ml. The adult emergence and the most vital biological activities of the emerging females including fecundity (fertility) were obviously affected. Complete emergence inhibition (100%) was recorded at concentrations 14 &16mg/ml while the lowest rate (6.48%) was with a concentration of 4 mg /ml. The highest rate of adult emergence was recorded at the concentration 4mg/ml which was 93.52% while the lowest adult emergence rate was recorded at the concentration 14 mg/ml which was 0%.The preoviposition period of the females which developed from the treated eggs was tested, and it was found that at the concentrations 12 & 14 mg/ml the females were sterile. Female fecundity was significantly decreased at all concentrations above 4 mg/ml. The lowest and highest mean scores of deposited eggs were 32% and 58.39% at concentrations of 8 & 4 mg/ml, respectively. The percentage of egg hatching was extremely reduced at all concentrations compared with control group. It was found that the plant extract caused morphological deformations in different developmental stages.
Keywords: Mosquito, Culex Pipiens, Stinging Nettle, Plant Extract, Urtica Pilulifera
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