Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometric Determination of Some Elements from Anchusa azurea Mill. Collected in Iraqi Kurdistan Region

Authors: Peshawa S. Osw1 & Faiq H.S. Hussain2
1Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq
2Medical Analysis Department, Faculty of Science, Tishk International University, Erbil, Iraq

Abstract: The Anchusa azurea Mill. (Boraginaceae) is naturally grown in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq and one of those plants that are used by many Kurdish people for cooking especially in the villages. It is a perennial plant and represented in wild Iraq by 26 genera and about 93 species. The present study includes the estimation of elements in the seeds, stems, roots, and leaves of Anchusa azurea Mill. Firstly, the percentage of moisture and total ash were determined. After that, the concentration of twenty-one elements was determined from thirty-three elements in plant parts using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The determined elements were: (Ca, Mg, P, K, Na, S, Al, Ba, B, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Sr, Ti, V, Zn, and Zr); among them nine elements were very abundant (≥ 100 ppm) and said to be macro-elements (K, Ca, P, S, Mg, Na, Fe, Al, and Ba). The potassium has recorded the highest concentration in stems (68.9 g/kg), followed Ca (32.6g/kg), P (4.33 g/kg), S (3.98g/kg) and Mg (3.73g/kg) from leaves. The concentrations of eight micro-elements (Sr, Zn, B, Mn, Cu, Ni, Ti, and Cr) were between (1-100 ppm), and the other four trace elements (Co, V, Zr, and Cd) were at (< 1 ppm). On the other hand, the nitrogen percentage (N %) and crude protein percentage (CP %) were determined from the plant parts using the micro-Kjeldahl method. The highest level of (N %) and (CP %) was from leaves part (4.09 % and 25.56 %) respectively. The occurrence of these elements especially in the leaves in addition to the other bioactive compounds makes sure to show the importance of A. azurea for a human body reasonable meal.

Keywords: Anchusa azurea, heavy metals, Microwave digestion, ICP-OES

Download the PDF Document

doi: 10.23918/eajse.v6i2p21

References

Alaadin, A.M. (2002). Phytochemical investigation of Plantago ovata Forsk seeds growing in Iraq. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Salahaddin, College of Pharmacy.

Al–Douri, N. A. (2014). Some important medicinal plants in Iraq. Int J Adv Herb Altern Med, 2, 10-20.

Al-Mussawy, A.H. (1987). Plant taxonomy, ministry of higher education and scientific research, Baghdad University, (1st ed.), Baghdad.

AOAC, (1990). Official methods of analysis, 14th Ed., association of official analytical chemists. Washington D C. Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Bakhru, H. (2006). Healing through natural fruits. Mumbai: Jaico press, Mumbai.

Belitz, H. D. (1987). In HD Belitz & W. Grosch. Food chemistry (3rd ed.). Berlin: Spinger-Verlag.

Chen, M. F., Huang, Y. C., Long, C., Yang, H. I., Lee, H. C., Chen, P. Y., … & Lee, T. J. F. (2012). Bimodal effects of fluoxetine on cerebral nitrergic neurogenic vasodilation in porcine large cerebral arteries. Neuropharmacology, 62(4), 1651-1658.

Chiej, R. (1984). The Macdonald encyclopedia of medicinal plants. MacDonald & Co (Pubishers) Ltd.

Clark, A. (2010). Managing cover crops profitably. Series Book 9, Sustainable Agriculture Network, Beltsville, MD, 3rd ed.

ESCO working group members (2009). European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Journal, Parma, Italy, 7 (9), 281.

Feng, X., Wu, S., Wharmby, A., & Wittmeier, A. (1999). Microwave digestion of plant and grain standard reference materials in nitric and hydrofluoric acids for multi-elemental determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 14(6), 939-946.

Gruchow, H. W., Sobocinski, K. A., & Barboriak, J. J. (1988). Calcium intake and the relationship of dietary sodium and potassium to blood pressure. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 48(6), 1463-1470.

Guil-Guerrero, J. L., Maroto, F., & Gimenez, A. (2001). Fatty acid profiles from forty-nine plant species that are potential new sources of γ-linolenic acid. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 78 (7), 677-684.

Harpestreng, H. (2004). Liber Herbarium II, Erik Gotfredsen sited from www.liberherbarum.com.

Honda, G., Yeşilada, E., Tabata, M., Sezik, E., Fujita, T., Takeda, Y., Takaishi, Y., & Tanaka, T. (1996). Traditional Medicine in Turkey VI. Folk Medicine in West Anatolia: Afyon, Kütahya, Denizli, Muğla, Aydın provinces. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 53, 75-87.

Hooper, D., McNair, J. B., & Field, H. (1937). Useful plants and drugs of Iran and Iraq (Vol. 9). Field Museum of Natural History.

Hussain, F. H.S., Ahamad, J., & Osw, P. S. (2019). A Comprehensive Review on Pharmacognostical and Pharmacological Characters of Anchusa azurea. Advances in Medical, Dental and Health Sciences, 2(3).

Ibrahim, M. F., Hussain, F. H. S., Zanoni, G., & Vidari, G. (2015). ICP-AES/ICP-MS elemental analysis of Tulipa systola Stapf. growing in Kurdistan region Iraq. J Pharm Sci Innov, 4(3), 165-167.

Johnsson, L. (2005). Essential trace elements and food quality. In Essential trace elements for plants, animals and humans. NJF Seminar (No. 370, pp. 15-17).

Kaya, N., (1998). Biyokimya uygulama kılavuzu. Ege University Press, Izmir.

Khare, B. C., & Plants, I. M., (2007). An illustrated dictionary. Springer Science+ Business Media. LLC., Spring Street, New York, NY USA, 1-739.

Kimura, M., & Itokawa, Y. (1990). Cooking losses of minerals in foods and its nutritional significance. Journal of Nutritional Science And Vitaminology, 36(4-SupplementI), S25-S33.

Kuruüzüm‐Uz, A., Güvenalp, Z., Kazaz, C., Salih, B., & Demirezer, L. Ö. (2010). Four new triterpenes from Anchusa azurea var. azurea. Helvetica Chimica Acta, 93(3), 457-465.

Lal, M., & Choudhury, R. K. (1991). Studies of trace elements in biological systems by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) methods. Indian Journal of Physics, 65(Part B), 30-43.

López‐Martínez, J. C., Campra‐Madrid, P., Rincón‐Cervera, M. Á., & Guil‐Guerrero, J. L. (2005). Ecological and simultaneous seed oil extraction/saponification/γ‐linolenic acid concentration. European Journal of Lipid Science And Technology, 107(3), 180-186.

Maghrabi, I. A. (2014). Determination of some mineral and heavy metals in Saudi Arabia popular herbal drugs using modern techniques. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 8(36), 893-898.

Osw, P. S., & Masum, P. A. (2017). Multi-Elemental Analysis of Crepis Sahendi Boiss Grown in Iraqi Kurdistan Region Using ICP-OES/ICP-MS Techniques. Science Journal of University of Zakho, 5(2), 210-213.

Osw, P., Hussain, F., Gozzini, D., & Vidari, G. (2017). GC-MS Determination and Identification of Eleven Fatty Acids in Triglycerides Isolated from the Seeds of Traditional Kurdish Medicinal Plant Anchusa azurea Mill. Eurasian Journal of Science and Engineering, 3(2), 230-240.

Rodushkin, I., Ruth, T., & Huhtasaari, Å. (1999). Comparison of two digestion methods for elemental determinations in plant material by ICP techniques. Analytica Chimica Acta, 378(1-3), 191-200.

Tutin, T.G., Heywood, V.H., Burges, N.A., Moore, D.M., Valentine, D.H., Walters, S.M. & Webb, D.A. (1972). Flora Europaea. Cambridge at the University Press, 3.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, (1984). Agricultural research service. Agriculture Handbook, 8.

Welna, M., Klimpel, M., & Zyrnicki, W. (2008). Investigation of major and trace elements and their distributions between lipid and non-lipid fractions in Brazil nuts by inductively coupled plasma atomic optical spectrometry. Food Chemistry, 111(4), 1012-1015.

Wu, S., Feng, X., & Wittmeier, A. (1997). Microwave digestion of plant and grain reference materials in nitric acid or a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide for the determination of multi-elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 12(8), 797-806.

Yeşilada, E., Honda, G., Sezik, E., Tabata, M., Fujita, T., Tanaka, T., Takeda, Y., Takaishi, Y. (1995). Traditional medicine in Turkey V. Folk medicine in the inner Taurus Mountains, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 46, 133-152.